List of warnings¶
Warnings produced by Luacheck are categorized using three-digit warning codes. Warning codes can be displayed in CLI output using
--codes CLI option or
codes config option. Errors also have codes starting with zero.
|011||A syntax error.|
|021||An invalid inline option.|
|022||An unpaired inline push directive.|
|023||An unpaired inline pop directive.|
|111||Setting an undefined global variable.|
|112||Mutating an undefined global variable.|
|113||Accessing an undefined global variable.|
|121||Setting a read-only global variable.|
|122||Mutating a read-only global variable.|
|131||Unused implicitly defined global variable.|
|211||Unused local variable.|
|213||Unused loop variable.|
|221||Local variable is accessed but never set.|
|231||Local variable is set but never accessed.|
|232||An argument is set but never accessed.|
|233||Loop variable is set but never accessed.|
|241||Local variable is mutated but never accessed.|
|311||Value assigned to a local variable is unused.|
|312||Value of an argument is unused.|
|313||Value of a loop variable is unused.|
|314||Value of a field in a table literal is unused.|
|321||Accessing uninitialized local variable.|
|331||Value assigned to a local variable is mutated but never accessed.|
|341||Mutating uninitialized local variable.|
|411||Redefining a local variable.|
|412||Redefining an argument.|
|413||Redefining a loop variable.|
|421||Shadowing a local variable.|
|422||Shadowing an argument.|
|423||Shadowing a loop variable.|
|431||Shadowing an upvalue.|
|432||Shadowing an upvalue argument.|
|433||Shadowing an upvalue loop variable.|
|512||Loop can be executed at most once.|
|531||Left-hand side of an assignment is too short.|
|532||Left-hand side of an assignment is too long.|
|551||An empty statement.|
|611||A line consists of nothing but whitespace.|
|612||A line contains trailing whitespace.|
|621||Inconsistent indentation (
For each file, Luacheck builds list of defined globals which can be used there. By default only globals from Lua standard library are defined; custom globals can be added using
--globals CLI option or
globals config option, and version of standard library can be selected using
--std CLI option or
std config option. When an undefined global is set, mutated or accessed, Luacheck produces a warning.
By default, all standard globals except
package are marked as read-only, so that setting or mutating them produces a warning. Custom read-only globals can be added using
--read-globals CLI option or
read_globals config option.
Implicitly defined globals¶
Luacheck can be configured to consider globals assigned under some conditions to be defined implicitly. When
--allow_defined CLI option or
allow_defined config option is used, all assignments to globals define them; when
--allow_defined_top CLI option or
allow_defined_top config option is used, assignments to globals in the top level function scope (also known as main chunk) define them. A warning is produced when an implicitly defined global is not accessed anywhere.
Files can be marked as modules using
--module CLI option or
module config option to simulate semantics of the deprecated module function. Globals implicitly defined inside a module are considired part of its interface, are not visible outside and are not reported as unused. Assignments to other globals are not allowed, even to defined ones.
Unused variables and values¶
Luacheck generates warnings for all unused local variables except one named
_. It also detects variables which are set but never accessed or accessed but never set.
Unused values and uninitialized variables¶
For each value assigned to a local variable, Luacheck computes set of expressions where it could be used. Warnings are produced for unused values (when a value can’t be used anywhere) and for accessing uninitialized variables (when no values can reach an expression). E.g. in the following snippet value assigned to
foo on line 1 is unused, and variable
bar is uninitialized on line 9:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
local foo = expr1() local bar if condition() then foo = expr2() bar = expr3() else foo = expr4() print(bar) end return foo, bar
Secondary values and variables¶
Unused value assigned to a local variable is secondary if its origin is the last item on the RHS of assignment, and another value from that item is used. Secondary values typically appear when result of a function call is put into locals, and only some of them are later used. For example, here value assigned to
b is secondary, value assigned to
c is used, and value assigned to
a is simply unused:
1 2 3
local a, b, c = f(), g() return c
A variable is secondary if all values assigned to it are secondary. In the snippet above,
b is a secondary variable.
Warnings related to unused secondary values and variables can be removed using
--no-unused-secondaries CLI option or
unused_secondaries config option.
Luacheck detects declarations of local variables shadowing previous declarations, unless the variable is named
_. If the previous declaration is in the same scope as the new one, it is called redefining.
Note that it is not necessary to define a new local variable when overwriting an argument:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
local function f(x) local x = x or "default" -- bad end local function f(x) x = x or "default" -- good end
Control flow and data flow issues¶
The following control flow and data flow issues are detected:
- Unreachable code and loops that can be executed at most once (e.g. due to an unconditional break);
- Unused labels;
- Unbalanced assignments;
- Empty blocks.
- Empty statements (semicolons without preceding statements).
Luacheck detects some common whitespace issues, such as trailing whitespace.