List of warnings¶
Warnings produced by Luacheck are categorized using three-digit warning codes. Warning codes can be displayed in CLI output using
--codes CLI option or
codes config option. Errors also have codes starting with zero; unlike warnings, they can not be ignored.
|011||A syntax error.|
|021||An invalid inline option.|
|022||An unpaired inline push directive.|
|023||An unpaired inline pop directive.|
|111||Setting an undefined global variable.|
|112||Mutating an undefined global variable.|
|113||Accessing an undefined global variable.|
|121||Setting a read-only global variable.|
|122||Setting a read-only field of a global variable.|
|131||Unused implicitly defined global variable.|
|142||Setting an undefined field of a global variable.|
|143||Accessing an undefined field of a global variable.|
|211||Unused local variable.|
|213||Unused loop variable.|
|221||Local variable is accessed but never set.|
|231||Local variable is set but never accessed.|
|232||An argument is set but never accessed.|
|233||Loop variable is set but never accessed.|
|241||Local variable is mutated but never accessed.|
|311||Value assigned to a local variable is unused.|
|312||Value of an argument is unused.|
|313||Value of a loop variable is unused.|
|314||Value of a field in a table literal is unused.|
|321||Accessing uninitialized local variable.|
|331||Value assigned to a local variable is mutated but never accessed.|
|341||Mutating uninitialized local variable.|
|411||Redefining a local variable.|
|412||Redefining an argument.|
|413||Redefining a loop variable.|
|421||Shadowing a local variable.|
|422||Shadowing an argument.|
|423||Shadowing a loop variable.|
|431||Shadowing an upvalue.|
|432||Shadowing an upvalue argument.|
|433||Shadowing an upvalue loop variable.|
|512||Loop can be executed at most once.|
|531||Left-hand side of an assignment is too short.|
|532||Left-hand side of an assignment is too long.|
|551||An empty statement.|
|561||Cyclomatic complexity of a function is too high.|
|571||A numeric for loop goes from #(expr) down to 1 or less without negative step.|
|611||A line consists of nothing but whitespace.|
|612||A line contains trailing whitespace.|
|613||Trailing whitespace in a string.|
|614||Trailing whitespace in a comment.|
|621||Inconsistent indentation (
|631||Line is too long.|
Global variables (1xx)¶
For each file, Luacheck builds list of defined globals and fields which can be used there. By default only globals from Lua standard library are defined; custom globals can be added using
--globals CLI option or
globals config option, and version of standard library can be selected using
--std CLI option or
std config option. When an undefined global or field is set, mutated or accessed, Luacheck produces a warning.
By default, most standard globals and fields are marked as read-only, so that setting them produces a warning. Custom read-only globals and fields can be added using
--read-globals CLI option or
read_globals config option, or using a custom set of globals. See Custom sets of globals
Globals and fields that are not read-only by default:
_ENV(treated as a global by Luacheck)
Implicitly defined globals¶
Luacheck can be configured to consider globals assigned under some conditions to be defined implicitly. When
--allow_defined CLI option or
allow_defined config option is used, all assignments to globals define them; when
--allow_defined_top CLI option or
allow_defined_top config option is used, assignments to globals in the top level function scope (also known as main chunk) define them. A warning is produced when an implicitly defined global is not accessed anywhere.
Files can be marked as modules using
--module CLI option or
module config option to simulate semantics of the deprecated module function. Globals implicitly defined inside a module are considired part of its interface, are not visible outside and are not reported as unused. Assignments to other globals are not allowed, even to defined ones.
Unused variables (2xx) and values (3xx)¶
Luacheck generates warnings for all unused local variables except one named
_. It also detects variables which are set but never accessed or accessed but never set.
Unused values and uninitialized variables¶
For each value assigned to a local variable, Luacheck computes set of expressions where it could be used. Warnings are produced for unused values (when a value can’t be used anywhere) and for accessing uninitialized variables (when no values can reach an expression). E.g. in the following snippet value assigned to
foo on line 1 is unused, and variable
bar is uninitialized on line 9:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
local foo = expr1() local bar if condition() then foo = expr2() bar = expr3() else foo = expr4() print(bar) end return foo, bar
Secondary values and variables¶
Unused value assigned to a local variable is secondary if its origin is the last item on the RHS of assignment, and another value from that item is used. Secondary values typically appear when result of a function call is put into locals, and only some of them are later used. For example, here value assigned to
b is secondary, value assigned to
c is used, and value assigned to
a is simply unused:
1 2 3
local a, b, c = f(), g() return c
A variable is secondary if all values assigned to it are secondary. In the snippet above,
b is a secondary variable.
Warnings related to unused secondary values and variables can be removed using
--no-unused-secondaries CLI option or
unused_secondaries config option.
Shadowing declarations (4xx)¶
Luacheck detects declarations of local variables shadowing previous declarations, unless the variable is named
_. If the previous declaration is in the same scope as the new one, it is called redefining.
Note that it is not necessary to define a new local variable when overwriting an argument:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
local function f(x) local x = x or "default" -- bad end local function f(x) x = x or "default" -- good end
Control flow and data flow issues (5xx)¶
Luacheck detects unreachable code. It also detects it if end of a loop block is unreachable, which means that the loop can be executed at most once:
1 2 3 4 5
for i = 1, 100 do -- Break statement is outside the `if` block, -- so that the loop always stops after the first iteration. if cond(i) then f() end break end
Labels that are not used by any
goto statements are reported as unused.
If an assignment has left side and right side with different lengths, the assignment is unbalanced and Luacheck warns about it.
An exception is initializing several local variables in a single statement while leaving some uninitialized:
local a, b, c = nil -- Effectively sets `a`, `b`, and `c` to nil, no warning.
Luacheck warns about empty
end blocks and empty
if branches (
In Lua 5.2+ semicolons are considered statements and can appear even when not following normal statements. Such semicolons produce Luacheck warnings as they are completely useless.
If a limit is set using
--max-cyclomatic-complexity CLI option or corresponding config or inline options, Luacheck warns about functions
with too high cyclomatic complexity.
Reversed numeric for loops¶
Iterating a table in reverse using a numeric for loop going from
1 requires a negative loop step. Luacheck warns about loops
#(some expression) to
1 or a smaller constant when the loop step is not negative:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-- Warning for this loop: -- numeric for loop goes from #(expr) down to 1 but loop step is not negative for i = #t, 1 do print(t[i]) end -- This loop is okay. for i = #t, 1, -1 do print(t[i]) end
Formatting issues (6xx)¶
Luacheck warns about trailing whitespace and inconsistent indentation (
SPACE followed by
Some examples of trailing whitespace Luacheck finds:
1 2 3 4
-- Whitespace example. print("Hello") print("World")
- Any tabs or spaces after either
)would be considered trailing.
- Any tabs or spaces after the
.in the comment would be considered trailing
- Any tabs or spaces on the empty line between the two
Trailing whitespace in any of these forms is useless, can be a nuisance to developers navigating around a file, and is forbidden in many formatting styles.
Line length limits¶
Luacheck warns about lines that are longer then some limit. Default limit is
120 characters. It’s possible
to change this limit using
--max-line-length CLI option or disable the check completely with
--no-max-line-length; there are similar config and inline options.
Additionally, separate limits can be set for three different type of lines:
- “String” lines have their line ending inside a string, typically a long string using
- “Comment” lines have their line ending inside a long comment (
--[[...]]), or end with a short comment using normal
- “Code” lines are all other lines.
These types of lines are limited using CLI options named
--[no-]max-code-line-length, with similar config and inline options.